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About HAp⁺

HAp⁺ is a sugar free acidic drop, which helps teeth stay healthy, by effective oral clearance

HAp⁺ stimulates unstimulated whole saliva up to twenty times compared to unstimulated whole saliva.

HAp⁺ contains calcium, which is needed for the maintenance of normal teeth

HAp⁺ is a powerful mouth freshener, effective for oral clearance and benefits people with dry mouth, irritation in the throat area, dry cough and nausea

Dental erosion

Dental erosion causes irreversible loss of tooth enamel and subsequently dentine

The symptoms of dental erosion is increased sensitivity to heat and cold, and provokes pain

Saliva is the natural protect mechanism against erosion

People with dry mouth are at increased risk of developing dental erosion

Dental erosion is primarily caused by acidic food stuffs

Acid dissolves the tooth substance (Hydroxyapatite (HAp)) and causes Dental Erosion


Dry mouth

Saliva is the natural protect mechanism against erosion

Human whole saliva has been shown to have protective effect against mineral loss of tooth substances in-vitro and in-situ and is accordingly recognized as an innatural protect mechanism against dental erosion.

Salivary proteins: Human saliva contains more than 40 different proteins with different biological functions. A majority of the salivary proteins also have an ability to bind to tooth surfaces. Accordingly, the tooth surfaces are covered with acquired pellicle comprising many of the proteins in saliva and the pellicle-forming effect of salivary proteins serves as a protection for tooth enamel. It is, therefore, likely that salivary proteins under conditions where the saliva is theoretically undersaturated will significantly limit the development of erosion in the mouth. (Read more)

Other protective factors in saliva: Saliva also contains tooth-protective substances that are not of salivary origin. These substances mainly originate from drinking water, foodstuffs, dentifrice, and food supplements. The most common and important of these is fluoride. In Denmark, the fluoride concentrations in the drinking water vary between 0.01 and up to more than 3.00 ppm. Apart from the water source, most dentifrice used in Denmark contains fluoride. Several studies have shown that the erosive potential of soft drinks and acidic compositions can be reduced in the presence of fluoride. In contrast, the literature also presents the opposite view on the effect of fluoride on erosion, with some investigations finding only a limited protective effect of fluoride and others unable to find any effects. Collectively, most studies point towards a protective effect of fluoride against dental erosion, if present during a moderate acidic challenge.

Dry mouth at greater risk

People with dry mouth are five times more likely to have dental erosion

A previous study has found individuals with reduced salivary flow rate (<0.1 ml/min) to be up to five times more likely to have dental erosion than individuals with higher flow rate, thus salivary flow may be particularly important in protecting against dental erosion among people with dry mouth.

Individuals with a low salivary flow rate also often have low salivary buffer capacity. This may also affect their susceptibility to dental erosion, as individuals with low buffer capacity have been shown to be at risk of developing dental erosion.

Additionally, salivary protein which forms the basis of acquired pellicle on the enamel, is known to protect tooth enamel. Therefore, data on salivary status may help to determine individual susceptibility to developing dental erosion.

HAp+ is clinically proven to be saliva stimulating and non-erosive in 90% of the dry mouth population tested

At least 10% of a population may have dry mouth

The prevalence of xerostomia, the subjective feeling of dry mouth, was found to be around 10% in 1996.

The 10% prevalence of xerostomia positively correlates with the objective measurement of reduced salivary flow, hyposalivation. It is however also generally known that the prevalence of dry mouth patients has significantly increased over the last decade. The most well known cause of xerostomia and hyposalivation is the intake of medication, autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren’s syndrome, and irradiation therapy on the head and neck area. Although the radiated patients comprise a very small group, their radiation-induced xerostomia and hyposalivation often belong to the most severe end of the spectrum. As it is generally acknowledged that patients with dry mouth seek oral relief through intake of acidic candies, these patients may be at greater risk of developing dental erosion than normal salivating individuals.

Xerostomia and hypsalivation

Xerostomia is the subjective feeling of dry mouth, whereas hyposalivation refers to an objective measurement of a low salivary flow rate.

If the salivary flow rate in the unstimulated state is less than 0.1 ml/min and in the stimulated state less than 0.5 ml/min, the diagnosis of hyposalivation is given. Efficient dilution, which is driven by the flow of saliva, is crucial to rinse substances from the oral cavity and protect the oral tissues. The average unstimulated salivary flow is normally 0.2 to 0.5 ml per minute. The average flow of stimulated saliva varies between 1 and 2 ml on average per minute when stimulated by chewing a flavorless substance such as paraffin, parafilm, non-tasting gum etc. The stimulated salivary flow rate can, however, become as high as 5-10 ml per minute in individuals with normal unstimulated saliva flow, when stimulated by an acidic taste from acidic foodstuffs or citric acid solutions.

Oral clearance

Oral clearance refers to the elimination of substances from the mouth and thus the salivary flow.

When measuring oral clearance, the disappearance of a substance, normally sugar, from the mouth is determined as a function of time. Two factors, in particular, are important for oral clearance: the salivary flow rate and the frequency of swallowing.

Oral clearance after rinsing with citric acid has been shown to be highly dependent on the individual. Slow oral clearance refers to the situation where the substance is present in the mouth for a long period of time (minutes or hours) after ingestion. Such a situation is almost always caused by a low salivary flow rate, and especially a low unstimulated salivary flow rate. If the oral clearance is slow, acid can accumulate in the mouth and the destructive process of dental erosion is accelerated. The destructive process depends on the type of food- in question and its stimulatory effect on flow and thus how much saliva is produced upon eating or drinking the particular foodstuff. Some foodstuffs have certain physical properties, measured as thermodynamic property of adhesion, which makes them adhere to the tooth substance. Accordingly, the clearance of such foodstuffs will be prolonged. In healthy individuals with normal salivary flow it has been proposed that erosive damage will be limited to the time of ingestion of acidic foodstuffs because of the rapid clearance of acid. Thus, the ability to produce saliva is important for protection against dental erosion, especially with respect to clearing acidic compounds.

Next generation

Next generation after sugar-free

Many products that originally contained sugar now have sugar-free alternatives. These alternatives are better for the teeth because they are less likely to cause dental caries. Nevertheless, there is a general misunderstanding that if a product is sugar-free it is tooth friendly; which is often not the case. Commonly, sugar-free products such as, candies, dietary supplements, saliva stimulants and various medicines, are highly acidic and therefore erosive and harmful to the teeth.

A product composition now exists that can be regarded as the next generation after sugar-free. The invention is specifically related to the inorganic chemistry of human saliva and its influence on the human tooth substance in relation to the intake of acidic solid composition. The composition is a pleasant tasting oral stimulant that is acidic but yet non-erosive. The product is based on seven years of scientific work, numerous scientific articles, a PhD thesis and dozens of conference procedings. The invention has been granted a patent in Austrial and has a patent pending in Canada, China, Europe, Hong Kong, India, Japan and USA


Relevant research

The Novel Technology (the invention):

Acidic solid oral compositions without erosive potential in saliva and method for determining erosive potential in saliva. (read more)

Jensdottir, Thorbjörg (inventor); Buchwald, Christian von (inventor); Nauntofte, Birgitte (inventor); Jensen, Allan Bardow (inventor). European Patent Office. IPC nr.: A61Q1100; A23G300; A61K819; A61K8365; A61K900; A61Q1100; A23G300; A61K819; A61K830; A61K900.

A patent pending or granted world wide

(More information: send mail to: happlus@happlus.is)

Peer reviewed original articles related to the invention

Saliva in relation to dental erosion before and after radiotherapy.

Jensdottir T, Nauntofte B, Buchwald C, Hansen HS, Bardow A.
Acta odontol Scand. 2012. Accepted.

Effect of chewing gums containing the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri on oral malodour.

Keller MK, Bardow A, Jensdottir T, Lykkeaa J, Twetman S.
Acta Odontol Scand. 2012 May; 70(3): 246-50.

Erosive potential of calcium modified acidic candies in irradiated dry mouth patients.

Jensdottir T, Nauntofte B, Buchwald C, Hansen HS, Bardow A.
Oral Health and Prev Dent. 2010;8(2):173-8.

Erosive potential of saliva stimulating tablets with and without fluoride in irradiated head and neck cancer patients

Lajer C, Buchwald C, Nauntofte B, Specht L, Bardow A, Jensdottir T.
Radiother Oncol. 2009 Dec; 93(3): 534-8.

Effects of calcium on the erosive potential of acidic candies in saliva.

Jensdottir T, Nauntofte B, Buchwald C, Bardow A.
Caries Res. 2007;41(1):68-73.

Effects of sucking acidic candies on saliva in unilaterally irradiated pharyngeal cancer patients.

Jensdottir T, Nauntofte B, Buchwald C, Hansen HS, Bardow A.
Oral Oncol. 2006 Mar;42(3):317-22. 

Effects of sucking acidic candy on whole-mouth saliva composition.

Jensdottir T, Nauntofte B, Buchwald C, Bardow A.
Caries Res. 2005 Nov-Dec;39(6):468-74.

Written work other than original aricles directly related to the Novel Technology

The erosive potential and modification of acidic foodstuffs - from laboratory to clinic.

Jensdottir T. Ph.D. thesis in Health Science (Ph.D thesis in Health Science that was a part of an Industrial Ph.D. Degree). University of Copenhagen. Copenhagen, Denmark. Defended April 2006. ISBN 87-991316-0-9
PDF Link


What does HAp⁺ mean?

HAp is an abbreviation of hydroxyapatite (Ca)10(PO4)6(OH)2

HAp is the main building stuff of teeth and bones

When HAp is undersaturated with regard to hydroxyapatite, erosion occurs

Erosion is caused by acid

In the mouth the acid erodes the teeth, this is called dental erosion

When HAp is supersaturated, dental erosion does not occur

HAp⁺ symbolizes supersaturation with regard to hydroxyapatite in the mouth

A product that is labelled HAp⁺ is a product that has significant reduced erosive potential, despite being highly acidic

HAp⁺ covers an invention consisting of: 1) A recipe of a non-erosive composition as well as 2) the methodology that clinically tests the erosive potential of a product.

HAp⁺ products are the first of the kind to be clinically proven to be non-erosive in 95% of the population tested in acidic solid and semi-solid food stuffs

HAp⁺ products are clinically tested in both healthy test persons (with saliva flow 0.2-0.5 ml/min) and in dry mouth patients (with saliva flow < 0.1 ml/min)

HAp⁺ is the exact relation between acid and calcium in a product with an effective pH 2.2- 3.2

HAp⁺ products are typically modified with calcium, acid, or both

HAp⁺ products are double as effective saliva stimulants than existing saliva stimulating products on the market [Lajer et al., 2009; Jensdottir et al., 2009] and therefore excellent mouth refresheners

HAp⁺ is often noted as the next generation after sugar-free